Microprocessors Lecture 5

Instruction Execution

It is often useful to think about the sequence of events that occur when an instruction is being executed by the processor. Obviously the first thing that must happen when any instruction is to be executed is that the first byte of the instruction must be read into instruction register. This is known as the Instruction Fetch Cycle.
  1. The contents of the Program Counter is output on the address bus.
  2. The contents of that memory location, the instruction code, is returned on the data bus
  3. The instruction code is loaded into the Instruction Register.
  4. The Program Counter is incremented by one.
  5. In the case of the 6809 all this takes place in one clock cycle, typically 1 microsecond depending on the clock speed.
    What happens next depends entirely on the particular instruction code. Suppose the code is 86 'Load Acc A using immediate addressing'.

  6. Program Counter -> Address Bus
  7. Contents of Memory Location -> Data Bus
  8. Data Bus -> Acc A
  9. Program Counter + 1 -> Program Counter
This also takes place in a single clock cycle - so the whole instruction requires two clock cycles,

Suppose the instruction code is B6 00 02 'Load Acc A using extended addressing from location 0002' and the instruction starts at 0025.

                                                   Address Bus      Data Bus
           Cycle 1
           1)    [PC]           Address Bus            0025            ??
           2)    [0025]         Data Bus               0025            B6
           3)    Data Bus       Instruction Register   0025            B6
           4)    PC + 1         PC

           Cycle 2
           5)    [PC]           Address Bus            0026            ??
           6)    [0026]         Data Bus               0026            00
           7)    Data Bus       TempH                  0026            00
           8)    PC + 1         PC

           Cycle 3
           9)    [PC]           Address Bus            0027            ??
           10)   [0027]         Data Bus               0027            02
           11)   Data Bus       TempL                  0027            02
           12)   PC + 1         PC

           Cycle 4        Nothing

           Cycle 5
           13)   [Temp]         Address Bus            0002            ??
           14)   [0002]         Data Bus               0002            93
           15)   Data Bus       Acc A                  0002            93
When they are broken down like this you can see how similar each of the cycles really is. In this particular case each cycle is a memory read cycle. The timing of such a memory read is obviously important and requires the use of clock and control signals generated by the processor.
The processor chip has an oscillator which is controlled by an external crystal. 8-bit Motorola microprocessors require a non-overlapping clock to drive the internal circuits.
There is a range of frequencies over which the processor will work, with an upper limit dictated by all the devices in the system and propagation delays on the buses. There is also, surprisingly, a lower limit because the processor uses dynamic registers which lose data if it is not refreshed within a given length of time.

The processor outputs two clock signals Q and E. Q is used to indicate that a valid address is present on the address bus and E is used to indicate when a memory or interface device can put data on the data bus in a read cycle. A control signal R/W is used to indicate whether a read or write cycle is in progress. The following diagram shows a memory read cycle.

A similar timing diagram can be drawn for a memory write operation which would occur during an instruction such as 'Store Acc B in location FE02' F7 FE 02.

A graphical display of microprocessor operations and bus cycles was developed as a student project in 1995. Although this display is based on an Intel processor, it will still be of interest.
The software is only available on the Departmental Server. Go to \APPS\MICROS and run pptview.exe. The following programs can then be run as a screen show: The information above has not been completely tested, and no guarantee is given.
MICROPRO team: D Patel, GIO, S King, G Shaw, V A Warnes, T H Lee H P Tay, A Demola
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